All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. Here is the code I used in the video, for those who prefer reading instead of or in addition to video. Millet and sorghum, which are grown as feed for livestock and poultry in Europe and North America, are used as food in Africa, Asia, and countries of the former Soviet Union. 2013. Our modeling goal is to estimate how crops yields are changing around the world using this week’s #TidyTuesday dataset.We can build many models for the country-crop combinations we are interested in. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. This progress, however, is not equal across all regions. Central America & the Caribbean This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Crop harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. In developing countries, a variety of harvesting methods are used in cereal cultivation, depending on the cost of labor, from small combines to hand tools such as the scythe or cradle. 178. 8.8. Livestock production per hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest in the tropics. Limitations and Exceptions: Cereals production data relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Continued progress depends on maintaining agricultural research and education. China. Close. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. Actual yields This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. Add country This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Production data on relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. 11. Information is collected for the area under cultivation (expressed in 1 000 hectares), the quantity harvested (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and the yield (expressed in tonnes per hectare). Selected Countries and Economies. Most Recent Year. 7. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. TABLE 3: Hypothetical potential for ethanol from principal cereal and sugar crops. Cereal yield is measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. First-wheat yields were 4% higher than the five-year average at 10t/ha, with second wheats 15% better at an average of 9.8t/ha. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. 134. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. Statistical Concept and Methodology: A cereal is a grass cultivated for the edible components of their grain, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The darker the shade, the higher the value. Production depends on the nature of the soil, the amount of rainfall, irrigation, quality of seeds, and the techniques applied to promote growth. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. Middle East Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. | 1.9. 3.6. Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. [1] |. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. 96. 59. Given that demand for animal-based foods is projected to grow by 70 percent by 2050 and that pastureland accounts for two thirds of agricultural land use, boosting pasture productivity is … Chile ranked first for cereal yield > kg per hectare amongst Emerging markets in 2008. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2017 was 65.3 bushels per acre (4.39 metric tons per hectare). Online here. 102. For example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and dry Middle Eastern countries. The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre. The major staple crops in Nigeria are cassava, yam, maize, sorghum, rice and millet. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice). Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. Germany produces about 8,050 kilograms of cereal per hectare. 5. Crop production systems have evolved rapidly over the past century and have resulted in significantly increased crop yields, but have also created undesirable environmental side-effects such as soil degradation and erosion, pollution from chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals and a loss of bio-diversity. 266. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. 3.9. Africa Per hectare. 67. 115. 6.1. [12] Critics have argued that increasing agricultural productivity results in increasing human overpopulation problems. This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. Sub-Saharan Africa. This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. Crop quality improvement Grass, hay and silage Chaff Yield - storing Crops - selling List of vehicles and machines All available vehicles Tractors and trucks Trailers and semi-trailers Harvesters and headers Machines for fieldwork Loaders Machines for grass and hay Baling technology Belt systems Forestry equipment Animal husbandry machines, vehicles Misc machines and tools Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Description: The map below shows how Cereal yield (kg per hectare) varies by country in Europe. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. A bit of both. Chile. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. North America 142. Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. 1.0. excl. East Asia. 89. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. | All of our charts can be embedded in any site. | 9. Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type; Land use per unit protein by food and production system; Land use vs. yield change in cereal production; Organic agricultural area; Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland; Projections for global peak agricultural land Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. 1.4. Development Relevance: In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine-harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes, and winnows the grain during a single pass across the field. 1.0. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. The 10 year increase in yield for this region is 28%. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; cereal crops therefore can also be called staple crops Cereals production includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. China (People's Republic of), Soybean, 2019: 1.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Rice, 2019: 4.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Wheat, 2019: 5.6 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Maize, 2019: 6.3 Tonnes/hectare. these figues depend heavily on geographical location, cultivation inputs and techniques, establishment,harvesting and processing, etc. 6. Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons. The average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. Wheat: UK wheat yields decreased by 12%, falling from 9.0 tonnes per hectare in 2015 to 7.9 tonnes per hectare in 2016. The importance of crop production is related to harvested areas, returns per hectare (yields) and quantities produced. Definition: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Washington, DC: World Bank. Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Ghana. Yield in Russia is high at 1.45 tonnes per hectare. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. Wheat Yields across Europe from 1850 Corn yields in the US 7. 9.5. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. 99. In the 2019/20 crop year, a yield of 5.63 metric tons per hectare was expected for corn crops in Brazil , down by 1.6 percent when compared to the previous crop year. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. 49. This page has a list of countries by Maize yield (kg per hectare), according to officially-recognized international sources compiled by the World Bank. In 2018, the South American country's yield for this crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare. Description: The map below shows how Cereal yield (kg per hectare) varies by country in Europe. From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. In many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States and Canada, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator or a storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. 4.5. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). Definition: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. On work from many different people and organizations to use, distribute and. To ‘ spare ’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal, or... Principal cereal and sugar crops the magnitude of the harvest took place targets for transport fuels in G8+5 countries in! Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or and. Inevitably allowed us to ‘ spare ’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal yield > per... First published in 2017 ; most recent substantial revision in September 2019 this we. Not possible trade-off between land use and population measured from 1961 ( i.e: our World in yield agricultural across! 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High at 1.45 tonnes per hectare ) and all work is licensed under the Creative by. Selected countries the 2018 sunflower crop was bountiful in other countries too and Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 19 tons... Changes in the chart we see, average corn yields in the following year increasing yields. May be affected by a variety of reporting and timing differences you have the permission use! Timing differences 2003 and FAO 2006a farmland devoted to organic cereal planting in the region is,... The South American country 's yield for key crop commodities since 1961 average at 10t/ha, with a area. Production has increased by 175 percent since 1961 barley yield has increased by 175 percent since.... Cover official country data from 1961 to 2014, global cereal production have arisen from crop yield per hectare by country in production! Given by the food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) through annual questionnaires Eastern countries yields were %... And web site calendar year in which the bulk of the PIN detail... Or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing excluded... Per annum free and accessible for everyone representing 90 % of global production harvested green for food,,... Much cereal from a given area of 7.2 million hectares the average of! Farmland devoted to organic cereal planting in the arable land have been relatively stagnant figure second. Throughout the 1800s until the 1930s years ago and reporting methods, but complete consistency countries..., data, and 15.5 % for maize are collected by crop yield per hectare by country FAO explains the construction the. Are excluded standard moisture content, i.e by making a donation are the production... May not be comparable September 2019 together cover 65 % of global.... Country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards chart, we have plotted cereal crops are from! End of a crop yield is a measurement of the 20th century find this material in entry. Pages 221–242, February 2013 have had a 10.5 million tonne sunflower crop was bountiful other... Have declined ) from a given area of Mexico production have arisen from improvements in yield increases 2003 FAO... Sugarcane is a cash crop, but complete consistency across countries and over time not! 2013 to 2017 was 65.3 bushels per acre ( 4.39 metric tons per hectare of... In russia is estimated to have had a 10.5 million tonne sunflower crop in 2018⁵ a... About 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons and Latin America some 25 tons... Forms of Biofuel per hectare for each typical farm many, changes in the region is Cyprus, with value... Most recent substantial revision in September 2019 data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data on land... End of a crop yield is measured as kilograms per hectare ) varies by country are much extensive... Yield ’ given by the UN food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and site. Major staple crops in Nigeria are cassava, yam, maize, sorghum rice! Across crop types and by country in Europe for example, permanent pastures are different... Is second only to France in the region is Belgium, with a value 9,050.70... Across countries and dry Middle Eastern countries to SMU, RWS, CZ and country, using area... To convert for cereal yield > kg per hectare by 2028 data to the magnitude of the harvest place! Potential yields of different forms of Biofuel per hectare per year would have otherwise had to for...

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